1. What is E.S.L.? And is E.S.L. different from E.L.D.?

2. What does S.D.A.I.E. entail? Who teaches S.D.A.I.E., the E.S.L. or the content area teacher?

3. When should students with limited knowledge of the English language receive instruction through their native or primary language?

4. How do you teach Cross-Cultural Understanding? How about Positive Self-Image and Self-Esteem?

5. What are the main characteristics of successful school programs for Language Minority Students?

6. How can I help Language Minority students succeed in the Academic Core Curriculum?

7. I have many Hispanic students. What should I know about their culture to effectively teach them?

8. My Language Minority students find it difficult to remember the new words in the content area lessons I teach. What can I do?

9. It is important that my students answer correctly questions that go beyond simply "KNOWLEDGE." How can I help my Language Minority students answer "EVALUATION" questions? How can I help them express their opinions and judgements?

10. Are there different types of bilingual programs?

11. I need help teaching the language of the content areas. My students can hardly read their texbooks or write about the content area.

12. We are very unhappy with the tests we are currently using. What do you recommend?

13.  What are some effective strategies for improving spelling?

14.  How can direct objects be taught?

15.  How can indirect objects be taught?

16.  How do I modify grades for students in silent period, or for students who are just acquiring social language in a core academic class? We have lots of trouble giving a grade. I think we should defer grades until such a time that the student is ready, but I don't think the administration will allow that. WHAT CAN WE DO? We want to be fair to these students and not penalize them for beginning to learn a language? I would be crushed if I received an "F" for the first grading period in Russia.

17.  What do schools do when students arrive with no English and not much schooling? Are there "Newcomers Centers" that work? Are "Newcomers Centers" a form of segregating students? Do you recommend "Classroom Centers" or a building within a school for newcomers to get oriented for a few days or weeks?

18. I'm looking for studies, papers, books that could help me train teachers. I've been nominated for just such a position in the Peace Corps. I would be training other Peace Corps teacher volunteers to teach in rural areas of Central West Africa where there is one of the lowest literacy rates in the world. These students that get to go to school are the lucky ones and their parents are very supportive. I'm most interested in what are the "universal" qualities that make a successful teacher wherever, he/she teaches. I could come up with a list of my own but I want to do some research. What do you suggest? I have taught in the elementary bilingual program for LAUDS, and supervised bilingual intern teachers for CSUDH.

19. Could you point me to some resources or online sites preferably of where I could see some excellent bilingual lesson plans for elementary age students learning English whose primary language is Spanish?

20. What is the best way to try to communicate directions to a non-English speaking student?

21. How can I access the level of learning of a non-English speaking student if I don’t understand them and they do not understand me?

22. How can I give directions in English?

23. O.K. The students have handed in their work and it is in English. But I too can copy things in Spanish. This is not a good way for me to see if they understand. What do you suggest?

24. We are basing our in-service on the fact that "All students are ELL (English Language Learners)!" All students are LEP (Limited English Proficient) at some point in their education (especially when faced with a new concept and vocabulary). What procedures and ideas can you provide that will help all students in the classroom as well as ESOL students? Good teaching strategies are good for everyone.

25.  When is an ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) student ready to begin reading?

26.  What is the length of time necessary for students to learn BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) and CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)? What is the length of time for the "Silent Period"?

27.  What do you do with a 17-year-old non-English speaker that enters High School?

28.  Does the student enrolled in ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages or ESL) have to meet the same standards that other students have to meet? How can the classroom instruction be modified? Must ALL students meet standards?

29.  Who is responsible for the education of ESOL students (students enrolled in English for Speakers of Other Languages)?

30.  How do you know if a child has a language problem or a learning problem before a whole year has gone by without much success?

31.  What is the best approach in teaching ESOL students (English Language Learners / ELL’s or Limited English Proficient / LEP students) how to read? Phonics? Sight?

32. Can you suggest second language development activities in small classes?

33. What are the strategies for improving spelling?

34. How do you incorporate cultural holidays into the curriculum without offending religious groups?

35. How can we get kids to memorize "genders"?

36. How much time should a Kindergarten, Level 1 (Pre-Production Level) student spend outside a mainstream classroom for ESL help? For a student at this age and English level, how can the acquisition of English be accelerated? How do the Kindergarten/Level 1 child’s needs compare to a 5th grade/Level 1 (Pre-Production Level) student’s needs?

37. We are a High School with an ESL (English As A Second Language) Program ONLY. Our students arrive with no English. What do we do?

38. Recommendations for short story collections and beginning novels for Advanced Placement students.

39. If some students experience difficulty with spelling, what activities can focus on this weakness?

40. At the advanced level of language proficiency, or at any level, can you suggest ideas on students reading and writing poetry?

41. Reading Skills on Inference. How to teach inference? (Activities)

42. Recommendations for names of Hispanic Magazines to use in regular and Advanced Placement classes.

43. Teaching the concept of a conjugation.

44. Can you suggest warm-up ideas for second language classes?

45. How do you correct pronunciation without embarrassing the student?

46. Please, explain the "silent period." Why do some (English Language Learners --ELL’s-- or English-As-A-Second Language) students begin speaking earlier than others?

47. Please, explain "low affective filter." Why do students speak freely in the ESL (English-As-A-Second Language) class but not in the regular classroom?



49. Teachers expect students to be on grade level. Explain:

50. Retention. Explain why not.

51. Explain BICS / CALP

52. Homework.. What are your feelings on homework?

53. Vocabulary building exercises

54. Correcting pronunciation without embarrassing the student.   How can it be done?

55. Differentiation of parts of speech.

56. How to convince other teachers in the program –even some within my own building—that articulation, that is, working together, is essential.

57. How to articulate between middle and high school levels. How and where to begin.

58. How to handle differences in speaking ability in class. Some non-native speakers are intimidated.

59. Length of time necessary for student to learn BICS/CALP

60. Modifications for Elementary and Secondary Students

61. How do you grade students that can’t speak English?

62. LPAC-Explain how educational choices for the students must be made by committee.

63. Laws – Basic for teachers

64. SAT9 Testing – How long will it take students to reach the 50%? How can classroom tests be modified for students?

65. How long will a student remain in an ESL Program?

66. What do I do for this child? How do I begin to communicate?

67. Explain how tiring listening in one language then translating into another language is for the student.

68. Cultural differences in Time

69. Explain what education means in the Hispanic family. The teacher is regarded as the authority. How Hispanic family regards school / education? Is it true that they normally don’t want to interfere. . .the teacher is boss . . may not be able to help with homework, etc.?

70. Standardized tests such as SAT9. . . How valid are these for the speakers of other languages?

71.  Should we be making IEP’s on these students so the classroom teacher knows exactly what modifications to make?

72. How to modify tests

73. How to work with ESL students without the other students just being ignored?

74. Do I need to modify from cursive to print?

75. How do you teach word meanings? The child can speak and read English out-loud, but does not know the meaning of words when asked.

76. I have a student who speaks good, but not perfect, English. When he attempts to write simple sentences, he does poorly on grammar. What is the best way to teach written English?

77. I have 3 ESL students in my PALS class. How do I check for understanding without singling them out? What is the good mannered Spanish way to ask if they understand / need help? For instance, is it better in this casual class to let them get by without responding or taking part in class discussions and just let them try to listen and pick up more English, or insist that they try to take part?

78. What materials are most useful, effective, and efficient?

79. What techniques are the most successful?

80. What can we do to help a non-English speaker the most?

81. How much should another student help in the classroom with a student who does not speak English?

82. Will the ESL teacher provide work for this student to do in the classroom?

83. What do you suggest the teacher do if an ESL student says he cannot write in English and therefore cannot answer the essay question on the test? Should you have him answer orally? If so, when? Others are working on test and can’t eave the room.

84. Grammar – 7th grade. How do I teach such detailed information (See worksheets) to non-English Speakers? Should I throw out the worksheet and use basic vocabulary worksheets or something better suited to their level? [Answer includes two part section on Spelling Development]

85. Writing – How should I grade writing for English Language Learners? Should I give a grade in relation to first draft and judge by improvement only? How do you give a score?

86. I teach kindergarten in North L.R. I am redoing my Ocean unit to teach ESL students as my project. I plan to make a large poster that is moveable to use all year for my self-esteem words (I will put the words on paper fish and then later I will let the students take the fish off as they "become" these words). As I started to get some books together to teach self-esteem words, I went through the book, Rainbow Fish. I thought I could read it to the class after teaching the vocabulary words and then get some self esteem words from the book to put in my ocean. Well, I have already accumulated 45 vocabulary words and 10 self-esteem words. Surely, I am not doing this correctly. By the end of the year, I would not have enough space on my ocean to put all the self-esteem words, nor enough wall space to put up all the vocabulary words.  My question is: Are all the vocabulary words to be nouns, so I can use pictures beside them? The words that can be gestured, such as, action words-- should they also be on the vocabulary list that is sorted and put on the wall?? Please explain how I choose these vocabulary words.

87. How do you know if an ESL student is using his/her language, culture, religion as a means of not doing his work, as a reason or excuse of getting out of assignments?

88. When, at what point do you start correlating with content area teacher(s)? Do you start from day one or use ELD strategies first?

89. If students become dependent on wall charts for everyday work, how does this affect standardized testing when the wall charts have to be covered or removed, i.e., their crutch is gone?

90.  Could you give me concise examples and descriptions of how one can implement the following outcomes in practice in the Early childhood setting:  Provide curriculum that provides for the holistic development of individual children and groups of children across a range of ages. Recognize and express the value of diversity and commonality that exists among individuals Utilize developmentally appropriate and inclusive practices.  Facilitate planned and spontaneous experiences.  Evaluate curriculum to ensure children's needs are met, individually and as a group

91. Dr. Sadek, I was in your ESL class this summer in AR. I have a young lady from Mexico in my seventh grade class. She is fifteen, and she was in school in Mexico for only a year. Her family has been here for 2 years. Noehmi can't read Spanish, and she certainly can't read English. I have brought children's books from home to try to find something for her to read. She doesn't know her vowels or letter sounds. Any advice?

92. My superintendent and I are working on a presentation to our school board trying to hire additional personnel to work with our LEP students. I need the graph that you showed us at the Migrant/ESL Academy in September that showed that after 4th grade the LEP students tend to go slowly downward while Native English Speakers tend to go slowly upward. Where can I access this information quickly since our board meeting is Monday next?

93. I am a K bilingual teacher at an Elementary School in Santa Fe, NM. Our former principal has retired and we now have a new principal who has put our dual language on hold to research the program more before continuing with its implementation. Do you have resources or do you have suggested readings regarding dual language programs without 1/3 Spanish speakers, 1/3 bilingual and 1/3 English dominant. I know this was a concern when our program first began and remains a concern regarding whether our site is the best location for a dual language program since recent language proficiency test scores indicate that we have 35% Limited English Proficient Students not 85% which was what we where told when you visited our school.  I believe the program was going well in K however the issue of lack of materials and sufficient training for new staff members hired to implement the program has also been raised. Lastly, we also have had some parental concerns which include discipline issues. If you have any feedback or suggested resources to share with our bilingual committee investigating (dual language) this matter further would be great. I also reviewed your Web Site and did find valuable information. Thanks in advance.

94. I have just a couple job related criteria questions that would like to be answered please:

1) What is the ability to plan and implement canter-based child development programs?
2) What are some skills in program administration?
3) Skills in effective oral and written communications?
4) Ability to train and supervise staff?
5) Ability to implement policies and develop operational procedures in accordance with regulatory guidance?

95. ARTICLE: "Don’t Blame Public Schools for ALL of Society’s Ills" by Principal John Miller
Great article, and so true. Now, can you come up with a program to get the parents to do their share?  Lots happening in Arkansas education as a result of a ruling on a lawsuit by a school district, and much of it may be good, if challenging for the state to fund.  All the best, Win Rockefeller

96. I will be presenting a workshop on Monday about "Making Accommodations for ESL Students" & I was wondering if I could give out your e-mail address, too. You have been very informative w/info and recommendations to our school district, the Rogers Public Schools. If you'd be open to having "mainstream" teachers e-mail you, please let me know. It is always nice to offer professional contacts to our staff. Thanks in advance.

97. SOS on errors and treatment --I need your help in providing me copies of several types of errors committed by students in their classroom recitations and the respective treatments done by their teachers. Is there a comprehensive listing of all these errors, i.e., typologies, categorizations, and models together with their treatments?

98. We had a young Hispanic man to register at one of the local high schools this week: 17 years old, dropped out of school in 3rd grade. (This is our worst case scenario so far) What do we do with such a student? How do we help him? He doesn't have to enroll in school because he is over 16, but if he chooses to enroll, we have to accept him even though it is clear that his sole objective is to learn enough English to get a job. In that same high school there are several 17 yr. old girls who dropped out of school in 6th grade. None of these know a word of English. It is becoming quite a problem and one that, as you know, is not being met by our current educational system (at least here in NC that's true).  We have always had students entering high school that we knew would never learn enough English to succeed academically before their time "ran out".  Since 1994, I have advocated a vocational track for these students in order that they learn English and also a trade of their choosing: carpentry, brick masonry, secretarial skills, nursing assistant, etc.
When I learned about a new diploma that would allow this, I was delighted that our students would finally have a chance. Of course, our administrators were quick to inform me that this particular diploma was for EC students. Certainly I do not want our students to be labeled EC (or anything that they are not), but we are not meeting the needs of many of our LEP students.
Here the community college is doing all it can to help us, but they cannot take a student who is under 18 unless he has been enrolled in school and has permission to transfer into their program.
Carmen, you know how much I care about these students, but sometimes I feel so helpless. I will always be their advocate, but I am not getting very far.
The people who need to know about these concerns are out of my boundaries. I have emailed Jerry and Jane at DPI (Department of Public Instruction) about my concerns and I will write some letters to congressmen/women. BUT I need help now.
Teachers are coming to me asking me all kinds of questions that I can't answer.
Any suggestions that you might offer will be very much appreciated.

99. Subject: math word problems
I am looking for some good strategies that will help my Hispanic ESL students with math word problems. This is such a nightmare for LEP students, yet even the math computation section of the End Of Grade Testing in North Carolina is now in a word-problem format.

100. Subject: Re: Direct objects
Will you ever find a direct object in a prepositional phrase?

101. How can Phonics apply at the high school level?  Especially in the Emotionally Disabled classroom?

102. I teach kindergarten in a school that is about 80% Afro-American, 5% Caucasian and 10% Hispanic. We are a Title 1 school, in that almost all of the students are on Free Lunch.  My years of teaching have shown me the important effect that instruction using music has on the learning of five-year-olds. It occurs to me to try to find songs that are in both English and Spanish to help convey meaning. I've gone through many web searches, and have exhausted the "Spanish/English children's music" category on amazon.com, barnesandnoble.com and sheetmusic plus.com.  Can you help me find more resources, or tell me who could help? I play the piano/keyboard, and can also lead songs without accompaniment.

103. The part of Northwest Arkansas that I work in is homogeneous and there is no cultural diversity in the community at large. What would be my best approach for staying abreast of the latest developments as well as being about to apply them to a classroom setting?

104. Do you recommend a foreign language class to equip teachers with base knowledge of the primary language of ESL students in the classroom? At what level do you recommend starting (i.e., conversation, formal) and why?

105. What activities can you recommend to prepare English speaking students for the acceptance of an ESL student, with limited knowledge and usage of the English language, into the classroom so that there is a feeling of comfort and security among the students?

106. I missed your March 2 workshop on ESL in Little Rock, Arkansas, but I do have a couple of questions. I may not have not found the info, but is it one of the goals of ESL to get the student to the point where they can function in an English speaking society?

107. Does ESL address cultural issues as well as language issues?

108. Does the law specify that the school must have available an instructor who speaks the students' primary language?

109. I teach a computer class in a high school. The class is an independent learning class where the student works with a hands on approach. The class is designed for the student to figure out problems on their own without assistance from a teacher. When the students are working on projects on the Internet they have a choice of what language the tutorials are in. Should I make the ESL students use the English Tutorials?

110. I teach integrated sciences for the 7th and 8th grades as well as Biology.  How do I modify science for the non-English speaking student?  How do I test for these students?

111. In science classes I have to be concerned about lab safety, how do I modify for the ESL student?

112. I understand that visuals can be very useful, but how do I explain what they are seeing?

113. Is it appropriate for the ESL student to be enrolled in a Spanish class? Could they not help English speaking students with their conversational Spanish? Couldn't this possibly help with student relationships?

114. In Van Buren as in Dardanelle, Arkansas, our Hispanic population is growing quickly. I have a boy who came to us from the mountains of Mexico during the middle of last year. Even those who can speak Spanish have trouble understanding him because he is from an Indian tribe of some sort. We know that he has not been in school since 2nd grade. When he came to enroll, he was placed in 5th grade based on his age.  We retained him in 5th grade this year, but I am very concerned that there may be more than a language barrier problem. He is a very small guy who is comparable in size to a 2nd or 3rd grader. He works with our ESL aide for 30 minutes every day. He also works with our Migrant aide for 30 min/daily.  He has been working on an English program in the Computer Lab, too.  Still, after 10 months, he speaks just a few English words. He can add, but that is it for his Math skills. According to our Special Education supervisor, we are not to test/refer any Hispanic children until they have been in our District for 3 years. I worry that in 2 more years, he will be so far behind that he will not get much of any education at all. What would you suggest? Please help me! Is there any regulation/law that says I cannot refer him for 3 years????

115. What is the difference between teaching ESL at a middle school vs. a junior high. My friend teaches at a middle school and there is a job opportunity at the junior high for ESL and I was wondering if she would be able to help me out since it would be my first year as an ESL teacher. Would I be able to use some of her material or would it be too adolescent for 7th and 8th grade students?

116. In my class we work in groups. I have two ESL students who group together. Should I break this group up so they can work with the students who only speak English?

117. I have read the question and answer on Homework. What would be an effective example of constructive homework in your opinion?

118. I have been teaching K-2 for the last four years. I have a BS in Early Childhood Education / Special Education and an MA in Guidance and Counseling. I would like to become an educational evaluator. Where do I start? Are there doctoral programs? Masters Programs? I work for the New York City Board of Education, District 10.

119. I'm a student from Malta and I'm confused about the word "all". In what part of speech does that word goes, in a conjunction or in a preposition?

120. I must be trying too hard, but I cannot find information on Krashen's Stages of Language Development??

121. I am enrolled in the Arkansas Non-Traditonal Licensure Program. I look forward to meeting you next month in Little Rock.  My question for you deals with the migrant families. I work in a small rural school, with several migrant families that come to work the crops then move on. What can we do to build a communication between school and home, when neither of the parents speak English, and the student only speaks minimal English?  What is the best way to handle the situation when the parent calls the school and we don't understand what she wants, or who she needs to talk to? I am very interested in helping the students, but have minimal experience working with students who speak limited English.

122.  I am enrolled in the Arkansas Non-Traditional Licensure Program, where you spoke on March 2, 2002. I regret having to miss your presentation, but the weather was too bad to attempt my 3-hour commute to Little Rock.  I teach Chemistry and Biology at a High School. We have no Hispanic population at this time. How does ESL affect me now and are there any steps I need to take now to prepare for ESL in the future?  Is there a big demand for more ESL programs and teachers in areas with a high Hispanic population?  Why are teachers expected to meet the same standards, such as reading, with students that are very English limited, when there are not enough people to first teach the language to them? I am referring to a particular person who teaches Kindergarten in a high Hispanic populated city. Most of her students are ESL and are doing the best they can to learn the language with their VERY limited time with the ESL teachers. However, the school and the state expect this teacher to have the kids reading by the end of the year. What are your suggestions for this situation?

123. Sometimes, I like for my students to help each other. Do you think this will be helpful or harmful since children do not always use proper English?   Do you feel bilingual children understand slang quicker than Standard English?   How do you let a child know that you would like to learn more about his/her culture if he/she is shy/withdrawn without crossing boundaries?

124. I will be at the workshop in March and my question is what is the best way to begin with a student who comes into school in the middle of the year (say January) without any training and no English? I teach kindergarten.

125. I am a non-traditional Spanish teacher at a High School. We do not have any Hispanic children in our school. I don't know if you will be able to answer this question, but when it comes to culture my biggest problem is I can't get my American students to understand why Hispanic children are coming over and why we are learning their language! How can I help these students understand that we are learning their language (Spanish) for ourselves as well as for them?

126. My first question is should you encourage a child to speak their first learned language even if they seem hesitant at first?  I teach a kindergarten class and at our grade level we have a child that lives in a household where one parent speaks English quite fluently and the other parent only speaks Spanish. The child can speak Spanish, but will not speak it around the other children at school. The other children are not teasing him about speaking Spanish, in fact they want to learn it. I have taught the children in my class to count to ten in Spanish and they are currently learning the alphabet in Spanish, and we read a few books in Spanish. I want to show the child that we are interested in and value him as well as his heritage/culture. I even speak a little bit of Spanish to the child, but he just smiles at me and does not respond. My question is how do you encourage a child to speak their native language and how do I go about helping him to not seem ashamed of his bilingual abilities?  At what point should you stop encouraging the child to use their first learned language?

127. How can I assess that a student really does have a language barrier and isn't just using the system?  What do I do with a Hispanic student who refuses to use the help provided because they want an easier grade?  How do I address a male Hispanic student who will speak in his native tongue whenever a female student walks past him in class? I don't know if what he is saying is rude or not but feel that it probably is.

128. I am a Special Education teacher working with sixth graders. I would like to ask you a few questions about ESL students. 
My question deals with students who have been identified as ESL and special education. When testing to see if their may be a learning disability, should you give them the test in their native language to rule out that it is not because of a language barrier?    Can a student be served in both Special Education and receive ESL services at the same time?  How many years is a student allowed to receive ESL services and what happens if he is still not proficient in English when he no longer can receive services?

129. I am a foreign graduate dentist who seeks to learn the Spanish language. I have realized how necessary it is to speak Español in the work field, especially here in Los Angeles. I have retrieved your e-mail address through your website. In this connection, I would like to ask your advice on where and how I can get the proper schooling.

130. I am a Spanish teacher at a High School in Coal Hill. My biggest problem with my classes is getting my students motivated and wanting to learn a foreign language. Our school has no Hispanic children and I feel that I want to teach ESL rather than Spanish because ESL students (or the ones that I have dealt with) are so excited to learn our language. How do you motivate English speakers to want to learn Spanish? It is more of a chore to them.

131. Regarding deaf children. I would like to know if you have programs or information dealing with deaf children.

132. We are running a play school in India with an age group up to 4yrs. I want my children to be smarter than any other play school's child. I am having CDs to teach them alphabets, rhymes, etc. Also during the month of May & June we teach different courses like English Conversation, Personality development, English Grammar, Computers, Casio, Dance, Arts & Craft to the  children up to age group of 14 yrs. coming from other schools during holidays. But I am worried for this month as I don't have any thing new for them to give relief from tough burden of studies and to educate them side by side which their parents want.   As with the money earned in these two months, I am trying hard to educate poor children free of cost. I need your kind support. Since you are experienced enough, please do teach me some new concepts according to Indian pattern. I wish you will listen to my kind request and will help your unknown friend.

133. What are some common characteristics of students who benefit from ESL programs?

134. Do students "grow out" of or learn English well enough to "get out" of an ESL program?

135. What is a good source for education materials in languages other than English?

136. At my school, Spanish I, II, and III includes learning to READ, WRITE, as well as speak Spanish. In my experience with English only students, we cannot assume because they speak English that they can also read and write English. As you know our literacy rates are not good. So why would it not be appropriate for an ESL student to enroll in Spanish?

137. How can we teach them to read and write English (a second language) if they cannot read or write in their first language?

138. Do you think that pulling a kindergarten ESL student out 2 times a week for 30 minutes is very beneficial, or do you think more time should be spent with the ESL teacher?

139. How do you help an ESL child who is having a difficult time expressing what she is wanting to say? She is able to get her mouth ready, she just has a hard time letting the words come out.

140. If I am sending home sight words (kindergarten) for the parents to go over with their children, how can I be sure that the parent fully understands the words?

141. In this area, ESL is most commonly utilized for Spanish-speaking students. Are there some areas where ESL is used for less commonly spoken languages? For instance, after the September 11 terrorist attacks, the US was scrambling for translators to decipher letters written in an isolated Afghan language. Is finding educators for primary language instruction always possible when the language or dialect is rare within US borders?

142. ESL, of course, stands for English as a Second Language. Are there any programs that you are aware of to help students whose first language is English, but whose dialect or register places them at a disadvantage? How do we help the student who is conversationally adept in English, but who lacks the background to prepare her for the formal register used by textbook authors, novelists, etc.?

143. As the United States becomes more infused with persons of Hispanic or Latino descent, is there currently (or do you forsee) any legislation requiring a percentage of public employees to be bilingual?

144. I am sorry I missed your class. I am the facilitator for the EAST program at a High School and here are my questions: How can we integrate the goals of EAST (self-directed learning, problem solving, communication, teamwork, using technology, self-confidence) with the goals of ESL?

145. What teaching techniques and classroom exercises can be used to develop student skills in self-directed learning and communication?

146. What motivational methods can be used to develop problem-solving, teamwork and self-confidence?

147. I was ill the Saturday you spoke to the Arkansas Non-traditional group. I have looked over the website and have enjoyed learning more about ESL. I teach in a private school and we do not have any ESL students as of yet. However, I have found many of your answers to be quite helpful to me with the students I currently teach. Some of my own questions follow: How can we continue to improve self esteem and positive attitudes in all children, but especially in the children who are less fortunate and exposed to more than they should be at such young ages?

148. I would like to explore the concept of better spelling. I agree about the problem with the English language. Our own kids cannot spell even in high school. How can we change this? I am constantly looking for ways to help my students improve in this area.

149. How can we change the focus of the educational community regarding homework? I fully agree with the idea that most of it is "busy" work. I personally do not give homework. We use our class time so that I know that they have seen the assignment and I am available to help them.

150. How can us coaches do more to show the other teachers that we truly care about our students?

151. Is showing the students you care about them one of the most important things you can do to motivate them to become better students?

152. I have been teaching in my school for only one year and we have many teachers not leading in the right direction. What can a young teacher do to help in this problem?

153. I am in the process of writing a thesis project for a Masters in Human Resource Management at Webster University. The topic is ESL: Educational Mandates and the Economic Impact in Duplin County, North Carolina. Do you have any material that addresses illiteracy and ESL in the public schools?   Obviously illiteracy impacts all cultures, but I believe sometimes it may be confused, or even hidden within ESL programs in junior or senior high schools. This may be more prevalent with older children as they enter the workforce at ages 16 to 22 years of age. Any thoughts, ideas, or background information on this particular slant?

154. Do you know where I can obtain K-3 worksheets on character building, obedience, discipline for free or little cost?

155. I'm a full-time K-12 ESL-certified teacher (through the first ESL Graduate Academy where you presented at the Tyson facility in 1996) and a candidate for a masters degree in second languages this summer. My thesis involves using videotape to capture the interaction between teachers and ESL students in regular classes. We serve only a few students in each school; this means we operate a pull-out program.  I want to video the teachers and ESL students during a regular class for about 30 minutes, then sit down one-on-one with the teachers afterwards to watch the tape and discuss the techniques that seem to work (or don't) with the those who volunteer for this project.   After the interviews, I will ask them to take a survey to determine the value of this kind of process. My goal is to improve instruction for our ESL students as well as others.  Since I can't require the teachers to participate, I'm having trouble getting them to volunteer. I sent out letters to about 50 teachers in early March and only got back 7 responses; I need at least 25 volunteers for this project.I've researched the legality of using videotape for this project with our school district and our state teachers' association; I will have to notify the parents in writing I have 2 letters ready to go--one for the parents of our LEP students (to be signed and returned) and one for the other parents just to notify them that a video camera will be used. That will be done this coming week. Do you have any suggestions and/or comments that might help me get the teachers "on board"?  I also welcome your thoughts about this entire project.

156. I'm a grad student developing a research problem.  Do you know where I can find data on voluntary grade retention? For example a 4th grade student wants to go to a private school and is not eligible for the 5th grade based upon test scores. Parents solution is to go to the new private school but place child in 4th grade. Please note that 4th grade child is not currently failing or young for grade level. Any data on these situations?

157. My first question is as a Special Education Teacher should I be keeping up with these students as if they were indirect students?  An "indirect" student is a student that does not go to the special edication teacher for a class. These students only receive modifications and help on test and when needed other wise. All grades and teaching is done by the regular teachers.
I would like to know what I would need to do if a non-English speaking student moves into my district that has a disability? I do not speak another language except for limited ASL.

158. How can we teach an ESL student our culture and traditions.

159. I am a first year education student at St Mary's College of Marlyand. I am enrolled in a class called Research methods in human studies and we are doing a research assignment on a topic of our choice. I want to teach Special Education so I chose "Do students with learning disabilities tend to be more of a behavor problem?"  This is of intrest to me because not only am I passionate about becoming a teacher, I am also learning disabled. I have dyslexia. I was wondering if there is anyway that you could answer my question or steer me in the right direction and being able to have enough research to write a paper that is understandable and answers the question that I have proposed for my paper. Thank you for your time and effort. I will look foward to hearing from you.  P.S. - The only information that I have been able to find is how to deal with students that are learning disabled and behavior problems. While this is good to know it is not exactly what I am searching for...

160. I had the privilege of attending your sessions at the very first ESL Graduate Academy at the Tyson facility in Russellville about 6 years ago and then later at a demonstration for educators in DeQueen. Since then I've received my ESL endorsement and have been employed as an ESL teacher for grades K-12 in the second largest school district in Arkansas. We have a significant LM population but only a small number of LEP students (approx. 75) scattered around the district; thus only 3 ESL teachers travel to certain schools and "pull-out" students for services.  I'm currently working on my thesis for a masters degree in second languages and need some advice on using videotape in the regular classroom to improve instruction. At this point I haven't talked to Dr. Andre L. Guerrero because I want to finish my research first.

161A.  I am currently working on a curriculum project investigating the question, "Why Teach Cursive Writing?" The investigation is for the middle school I work in. Because New York specifies that the Eighth Grade ELA Test may be written in either print or cursive, a division has split the faculty who are arguing whenther it is productive to teach cursive writing to students who would rather use print. I would appreciate being pointed to any research which you are aware of which might shed light on this controversy.

161B. Comment:  I appreciate your educational input and the resource you provide to educators, thank you.
In question #161 you were asked about research on manuscript vs cursive. I'm surprised that you have given such a broad response with no research to report your hypothesis.You do make one strong point: On a more serious note, however, it is my understanding that cursive writing may be required for very important events in life. For example, I believe checks must be signed in cursive; personal signatures in cursive may be required for very important documents in life; cursive writing is the only writing that distinguishes one person from another person in legal proceedings and legal investigations. Thus, there is a practical reason for teaching cursive writing. Unfortunately this is a fallacy. Your signature is yours. no legal ruling dictates its form. Personal writing in either format can be used to "distinguish" a person from another in legal proceedings.  I know, I gripe. I really do appreciate the info that you have provided me, but something came up and i felt I wanted to share.

162. How do you increase parental involvement with an ESL child?

163. What are proven testing methods to determine if an ESL child has a learning disability versus problems caused by language barrier?

164. What are some good math and literacy programs used for children who are both ESL and special ed?

165. I am currently enrolled in the Alternative Licensing Dept. in Little Rock, Arkansas. I am so sorry I missed your presentation on March 2nd. I teach 11th grade English. I have three questions for you concerning a student in my classroom. She is from China and speaks very little English and uses a translator constantly. Her written English skills are also very limited. I have started to used modified tests for her, treating her as if she had some sort of disability. I did attempt to explain what I was doing so she would not feel stigmatized, and she seemed grateful for the assistance. However, she still has difficulty in understanding me. Question 1.   Can I do anything else to support her in standard tests?  Question 2.  I have given her a copy of a textbook I used to use in teaching remedial students in college. I asked her to work through the book and bring me some of the work and I could give her credit for doing the work. She has not done this but I think she's using the book as her written skills have improved a little. Should I continue to ask her to bring the work to me? She is passing the class with a C at the moment.  Question 3.   How much should I call on this student to answer questions when I'm not sure she is understanding what is going on in the classroom, especially when we are going over work and I'm firing off questions to the students? Should I leave her out of this or attempt to ask her an easy question?

166. Why do you think sports are more important?  Why are sports a top priority in the schools (vs. Academic Achievement)?

167.  As a paraprofessional, how can I apply in my own classroom what I have learned in your seminars, when the teachers I work with use their own methods?

168. I've read books, done therapy, and consulted with many for over 16 years without any substantial progress. Among other problems, I need to deal with a mental compulsion to break apart words and phrases into symmetrical groups, the continual counting and sorting of everything I see, and the uncontrollable parade of ideas in my head competing for attention. This  interferes with concentration, impairs decision-making, and leads to frustration and depression.  I would welcome suggestions, possible solutions, reference materials, referrals, anything you might recommend.

169. I'm a non-traditional licensure teacher. I teach in the Northeastern part of Arkansas where there are few or none ESL students, however, if I was in that environment, how could I serve these students effectively?

170. How could I correspond with the parents concerning their child's academic and social improvement, especially the family that speaks another language?

171. What types of standardized state testing are available in other languages for ESL students?

172. Our school with the largest ELL population is trying to justify a Spanish Class at that school. This class would teach all students the Spanish language. Do you have any research on this?

173. I'm in the Non-Traditional Teacher Licensure program through the Arkansas Department of Education. I recently attended your workshop on Language Acquisition and ESL. I have some questions that I'd like to ask you, since I did not have the opportunity at the workshop.  I am currently teaching Spanish in a small school district in Northwest Arkansas. My bachelor's degree is in psychology from Hendrix College and I recently received my Master's degree in Counselor Education from the University of Arkansas. I took several Spanish courses at Hendrix, but am not fluent.  My question to you is this: Is it necessary to be fluent in Spanish to teach it effectively?

174. I have a few native Spanish speakers in my classes. Because I work in a small district, Spanish is the only foreign language
offered. Since these students already know Spanish, I sometimes feel that they're extremely bored in my class. What can I do to engage them in the basics of Spanish grammar?

175. What opportunities exist for foreign language educators like myself (who are not fluent) to become fluent in the language? Are there any "immersion" programs that do not require moving out of the country for a year? Moving to a Spanish speaking country is not an option for me at this point, but I would love to improve my speaking abilities and eventually become fluent in Spanish. Any ideas or suggestions?

176. I am enrolled in the non-traditional licensure program for teachers in Arkansas.  I have at least one student who is still enrolled in the ESL program, she doesn't like to ask questions and I am trying to find a way to get her to ask questions while in class without embarrassing her.

177. Can a school be penalized for not offering an ESL program if they have students who are in need of it.

178. Is there state funding available for schools who have ESL students but can't afford to hire someone.

179. Based on Question #13 from EducationalQuestions.com:  How would you grade spelling quizzes or written answers on any test for a student who appears to be dyslexic? He has not been labelled as so by any test that I am aware of, but he can't read aloud without help with basically every word. Also, his discussion answers are impossible to read. The letters do not make words. It's as if they're jumbled up.

180. Based on Question #48 from the same website: With a large class size, it is very difficult to see sometimes where a problem starts. How do you avoid punishing the entire class and still make sure the trouble-maker gets his punishment?

181. Based on Question #2 from the above website: The 4th standard listed for SDAIE suggests teaching complex thinking. I feel I am doing this with open-ended questions. How do you deal with those students that simply leave the open-ended questions blank? The same question may be asked orally and they quickly give the correct answer. What are your suggestions to this problem?

182. I currently have an ESL student that will not speak when asked a question, she knows English now, and speaks it with the other students, but she will not speak to me. Both myself and her ESL teacher have tried different techniques, but nothing seems to work, what do you recommend?

183. My ESL student also has no one at home who speaks English, over the summer what are some effective techniques that the parents could do with her to help maintain the skills she has learned this year?

184. What is an effective way to encourage the parents to practice speaking English with the child?

185. I am participating in the Non traditional Teacher Certification program in Arkansas and would like to submit several questions to you regarding ESL and Cross Cultural Understanding.  I teach math to 115 8th graders in a rural junior high school. The first and most important of my classroom rules is that students will show respect for all people, places, activities and materials related to learning in my classroom.  We spend part of the first week of school discussing the term "respect" and identify actions that display an understanding of the word as it relates to the learning environment. I would like to expand this lesson throughout the school year using some of the 3000 positive adjectives you spoke about on the website. Where can I find this list?

186. Regarding different types of bilingual programs and the concepts of "early exit" and "late exit" from these programs. Why would anyone consider early exit if the risks to learning are so negative?

187. I lived in Germany for a while and introduced the concept of the language of math as a foreign language using a German paragraph. It illustrated that the language of math can feel just as foreign as the German paragraph I just read to introduce my lesson but it can be learned just as I learned to speak and understand German. This was a very effective method of catching and maintaining student attention and spawned a discussion about Germany and their cultural differences that has continued throughout the year. I have a word wall that reinforces the vocabulary of math that has proven to be very helpful, too. What are your feelings about using the method I chose in order to introduce Math as a foreign language and the idea of cross cultural learning and understanding? (Incidentally, none of my students speak another language other than English.)

188. Do you think all ESL teachers should speak the primary language of the students they are teaching?

189. I would like to know if it would be too much homework for my student write his spelling words in his language then in English?

190. How can I make my room cultural diverse without making my student feel that I am singling him out in some way?

191. How can I do science demonstrations so that my student will understand what I am saying and doing without confusing what he may have read?

192. I'm sorry that I missed your presentation March 2. I coach track and field and we had our State Indoor T & F Championships that weekend at U. of A. As is turned out, much of the meet was canceled due to inclement weather.  I teach Remedial Math and English for Jr. High students. There are several Hispanic students in our school and I have three of them in one of my classes and only one of them speaks fluent English. I only teach pre algebra to them.  I am very serious about improving my teaching skills and I take it personally when I can't get through to a student.  I have several questions for you and I'm glad that I now have your websites to answer some of them. It seems that a few of my Hispanic students are more concerned with someone just giving them the answers to questions so they can submit them for credit than actually learning the content being taught.  My wife teaches at our elementary school and can speak Spanish, so she is our "school translator". Knowing only a limited amount of Spanish cripples me sometimes with these students.  What are some "Universal" techniques that I can use to help them understand the importance of knowing the material?

193.  Does the use of manipulatives ( shapes, blocks, etc.) work better than instruction from the chalkboard?

194. Does employing the use of my English speaking student to help translate impair her learning experience?

195.  I am from Duplin County, NC. I teach ESL at an elementary school.  I want to know if your have an example of or steps to adapting a lesson or chapter to meet the ESL student's needs.

196. I would like to have my ESL students read "The Ninth Story" by Boccaccio. Can you help me analyze the vocabulary to be introduced before I read the story to my students (and they read silently along with me)?

197. Please explain how to promote interaction between students in the multicultural classroom. Students in my class speak 3 different languages and they splintered themselves off into 3 different groups. What strategies do I use to promote interaction between my students?

198. Could you give me concise examples and descriptions of how one can implement the following outcomes in practice in the Early childhood setting: Plan curriculum that is based on a thorough understanding of child development.
· Identify developmental milestones and variations in children.
· Utilize principles of curriculum development
· Plan and provide a curriculum and environment which are inclusive.
· Evaluate and revise curriculum when necessary to ensure all children's needs are met.
· Support the development and learning of individual children within the context of family, culture and society

199.  a). How much are your videos and how do we go about ordering them?  b). Do you have a list of responsibilities for the dual immersion coordinator?

200. Carmen, I am having difficulty in deciding what I need to fulfill my project. I learned so much at the State of Arkansas ESL Graduate Academy. I know there is so much that I can do for the ESL students. I work at an Accelerated Learning Center, grades 9-12. The students are 15-21, and our students recover their credits (they have failed at their schools: ie: pregnancy, truancy, family responsibilies, etc.) Many of our kids bring a lot of personal problems with them.  I think that I would like to do something with character education (CE) and tie it across the curriculum. I want to include a timeline starting with the assassination of Pres. Kennedy past the Civil Rights Act of 1964. With this activity, I would include the vocabulary, the CR Act and how it affects my ESL students today (compare/contrast, critical thinking skills, writing activities, group interaction.) Across the curriculum would include the reading, language arts, social studies, technology, social skills.  I need help. ie: CE: caring, compassion, patience, respect -- heroes during Civil rights movements, and ESL students would discuss a hero here, heroism in the classroom/school. Students read assignments from the internet (technology), use critical thinking skills, discuss the happenings and may come up with why it was important for the targeted group to have caring, compassion, patience,etc.during the struggle and if those traits are prevalent today for each of them and for the citizens of our state. In order words if we have greater character, there is great acceptance for all people.

201. The other question I have for you and would really appreciate your answering it with reference to schools
in America is as follows:
How are you able to implement the following outcome in practice giving consideration to the points below:
Act in a manner, consistent with the principles of fairness, equity, and diversity to support the development and learning of individual children, within the context of family, culture, and society.
* Recognize and express the value of diversity and commonality that exists among individuals.
* Demonstrate respect for the individual.
* Promote an environment of mutual respect amongst children.
* Implement experiences for children which are inclusive.
* Evaluate and revise inclusive approaches to curriculum.
* Validate communication initiated by individual children, families, and co workers.
* Plan curriculum and develop programs that are responsive to the social and cultural needs of individual children and groups of children.
* Respond sensitively and appropriately to families.
* Deal with behavior interventions with, and guidance of, children in a sensitive and appropriate manner.

202.   I teach at a small high school in North Central Arkansas and we have very few bilingual students. So my questions deal with the correcting of my adopted daughters.  1) How can I explain that what might be culturally accepted in their former country, is not accepted  here?  They get very defensive when we attempt to correct this.  2) My daughters have a bad habit of not finishing their words. For example, " May I go to Cindy hou?" instead of, "May I go to Cindy's house?"  3) Because of the language difference, should they be disciplined differently than others?

203.  Comment: I was among the many people you trained during the 12-day ESL academy in Arkansas in June. I attended an international economics workshop in Springdale last week at Helen Tyson Middle School, and I saw several lists of positive adjectives on walls in the classrooms and the halls. I thought of you every time. I just thought you'd want to know of evidence of your positive influence. Thanks for being such a big part of that June adventure!

204.   I am not sure if you remember me. I met you when you did a workshop in El Dorado, Arkansas this summer. I was the girl whose mother taught ESL with Nancy. I am now teaching in El Dorado. I teach 8th grade English at a Junior High, and in one of my classes I have one ESL student. Nancy and mom couldn't take him because their classes are so full. He speaks Russian so they thought he would be better off around English speaking kids. I was wondering with a class size of 19 and fifty minutes a day. How can I best use that time for teach the other 18 kids plus help him? I really want to help improve his English.

205. Academic question:  I attended the ESL Academy in Little Rock, Arkansas this summer. I now work as a high school counselor. We have a student from Mexico in the 12th grade.  We received her transcript but I can' t figure out the grading scale. How do we as a district determine if she should graduate from high school. She is taking English, of course, and another class to work with her on vocabulary. While in Mexico, she took 2 years of English in the 10th and 11th grades.  Should we be looking at the transcript? Again , should we be looking at the grades (numbers associated with the class).

206. We are implementing a 50/50 Spanish/English Dual Immersion Program at K-2 this year. English and Spanish are strictly spoken: English while in the English half of the day and Spanish while in the Spanish half.  The students are mixed equally between the classes, English/Spanish/Bilingual. We intend to continue the program as our students matriculate up the grades. We had a couple of key questions at yesterday's staff meeting and I would love your input:
(1) While instructing in a student's L2, when, if ever, may a teacher move to a student's L1 to support student understanding? How do you weigh program integrity (not breaching the L1/L2 language expectation) against student learning?
(2). What should student "output" language be for independent work? i.e., if a student is reading at level 1 in English and Level 16 in Spanish, should that student be required to read only in English during the English portion of the day? Spanish only in the Spanish portion of the day?

207. Subject: phonological difficulties.
My Spanish students have many difficulties with their phonetics. They use the phonemic system of their native language when they speak English. I would like to do a phonological analysis: find specific examples of pronunciation mistakes that I have observed in my students.  How can you help me to understand the differences between the two languages?  Any particular book you could recommend?

208. I am going to use the wonderful tale of Rikki-tikki-tavi to teach reading to my 7th grade "redesignated" English Learners and my African American students at an inner city (Los Angeles) low-achieving school where the population is 75% Hispanic and 25% African American. What is the most effective way to teach this story that so many young people love?

209. Subject: Non native English speakers.
I work with preschoolers. I have had several questions from the parents of my students about the influence of non-native English speakers teaching their children. Do you have a reference for any printed material I might give to parents that explains that it is NOT detrimental to receive instruction from bilingual speakers?

210. Subject: Las palabras.
Le quiero hacer una pregunta y espero que me la pueda contestar.  Las palabras: Hispano y Latino---No sé si es ignorancia de mi parte--pero yo en lo personal no me gusta ser considerada "hispana". Prefiero la clasificación de "latina"--aquí en NH--cuando hablan de "Faculty of Color"--ponen a todas las personas de países de habla español--incluyendo a los españoles en la misma categoría. ¿Es correcto hacer esto?--Yo siempre he entendido que los españoles son europeos. ¿Así que por qué ponernos juntos?---También cuando veo las noticias--oigo las dos palabras usadas en la misma oración ¿Cuál es la historia de estas terminaciones? ¿Dónde puedo encontrar info. sobre el uso de "hispano y latino"? También no me siento cómoda usando "I'm Hispanic"--Posiblemente sea por mi desarrollo en CA. Aquí en el noreste--es más común la palabra--¿Será por la ubicación de nuestros países? ¡Ayuda por favor!--

211. Subject: ESL program.
Dr. Sadek, I am an ESL teacher in a small high school in Minnesota. I mentioned your web site in a gathering with some ESL teachers. Everyone was wondering if you are planning to have a conference in Minnesota in the future.  I do have a question regarding setting up a better ESL program at my school district. For grades K-3, we have around 30 ESL students.  A teacher is running the ESL program there. She has an elementary school license, but she is not certified in ESL.  I have a teaching license in ESL, and teach content-based ESL to students at grades 4-12 at two different schools. (grades 4-6, 15 students; grades 7-12, 17 students) Since most of the ESL students can't pass the mainstream content-area classes, and all ESL students need to receive credits from content-area classes in order to graduate in MN, our high school principal hired a teacher to teach sheltered content classes to all 19 students at grades 7-12. This newly hired teacher is a great teacher, but she is not certified to teach ESL, either.  Eventually, there will be problems with hiring uncertified teachers to work with ESL students.  If we hire two more certified ESL teachers instead, how can we help ESL students at grades 7-12 pass difficult ainstream classes, especially when most of them are reading at the 1st to 3rd grade reading levels?  We need some insight from you. What should we do in order to try to meet the needs of the ESL students? Your suggestions will be greatly appreciated.

212. What is "Euro English"?

213.  I teach US History in a rural high school in North Carolina. Many new Spanish-speaking students have moved into the area and attend my classes. The immense textbook we use in my classes makes it impossible for my students --all my students, English-only speakers and English Learners-- to read with understanding everything the text covers. How can I provide instruction to obtain maximum learning from my students with so much to "cover" in the text?

214.  How can I help students develop the language of BIOLOGY?

215.  Subject: SDAIE.
I am a California Public School Special Education High School Teacher with EL students. How soon do I have to get the SDAIE? Can this ever be waved in lieu of years taught or other circumstances?

216.  Subject: research on importance/role of developing L1.
I have a question. I know that "research" says that students who develop their L1 literacy skills will be better able to learn an L2. We have a teacher who is questioning why we insist that students who are illiterate or very limited literate in Spanish are being required to take Spanish for Native Speakers when they first enter our ESL program in Grades 8-12 as an ELL1 student.  I know that "research" shows that older students who are not literate in their first language will have an extremely difficult time becoming literate in English.  My question: do you know the SPECIFIC research that shows that it is essential to develop older ELL students' native language in order to accelerate their English acquisition?   I can look and find it--but, thought you might know references quickly.

217. Subject: Requesting information.
I would like to have some information about how to get a teaching credential. I would like to teach Spanish. I have a Bachelor's accounting degree, but my first language is Spanish and I feel I have good knowledge of Hispanic culture. Is there anything I can do in order to get a teaching credential a soon as possible? I really would like to get a job as Spanish language teacher. I will be so grateful to you if you have the time to give me step by step the information I need.

218.  Subject: checklist
Hello! I attended the ESL Academy in the summer of 2001. I really enjoyed your training. It changed the way that I teach my students, making me a better teacher! Thank you!  I am looking for guidence with the ESL program in our district. We are recently experiencing an increase in the number of ELLs. We are looking at expanding our program. At this time, we have an uncertified tutor. We are looking at having ESL classes. I am searching for a skills checklist for our ESL program. That way we can monitor the language skills being mastered. Can you guide me to where I might find a sample of this to use as a guide?

219.  Subject: FW: Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Spanish Evaluation
I am a coordinator of an established 90/10 Spanish - English Two-Way Program and received your holiday card with the flyer for your web site.  Thank you for your wonderful resources and information!   When we started this program, evaluation was via portfolio and the current focus on standardized testing didn't exist. For the ten years of our program we have done whatever the State (CA) and the District have mandated and used SABE. Now the District prefers not to fund the costs for the testing but we know we need to evaluate the students' growth in Spanish as well as English (for ELLs that is via STAR, CELDT and our District test)..... My principal, the original visionary of the program, is leaning toward trying to use a foreign language model type evaluation. He'd like somehow to rate the fifth graders against a Spanish 1 or 2 level text evaluation so that as they enter middle school where the program continues through 8th grade, they'll have some measure or predictor of what level Spanish class they can take.  Our first small cohort in high school this year are taking Spanish 4 and most are quite bored.  With all this background, here is the basic question: What is the best way to evaluate/document the Spanish language and academic growth of our K-8 students? (Both SLLs and ELLs) ¡Mil gracias por su apoyo!

220.  Subject: Positive Vocabulary Words
Do you have a list or know where I might find a list of positive vocabulary words?

221.  Hi. Can you help me please? I am preparing for a test and I am having a difficult time finding information on some aspects of ESL/Bilingual Ed. Do you have any information on "LINKING CONTENT TO ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT"?

222.  I teach a reading class for high school students. The students must pass a state-mandated Competency Test in Reading. To prepare them for the test I use a booklet where students are given practice in reading short selections and then answering a question or two in writing about a specific literary element-- for example, point of view, flashback, foreshadowing, etc. Usually, the students read the brief selection, answer the questions in writing, and then we discuss their answers. Many times their answers are wrong, their writing seems to be very simple and to the point, and they seem to have trouble understanding the literary elements.  What is the best way to prepare these students for their Competency Test.

223.  I'd like your opinion on Jane Greene's Language! for ELLs levels 3-5.  Any data supporting your opinion would be greatly appreciated.   Thanks

224.  Re: math word problems -- I am looking for some good strategies that will help my Hispanic ESL students with math word problems. This is such a nightmare for LEP students, yet even the math computation section of the End Of Grade Testing in North Carolina is now in a word-problem format.

225.   I look forward to your presentation this Saturday in Little Rock at the NTL training. I teach Special Education Inclusion in 7th and 8th grade Life Science, Earth Science, English and Social Studies. Yes, my plate is very full.   In several, if not all, of my classes I have Hispanic students. I find that I relate to all very well. I spend as much time assisting their needs as I do for the Special Education Students. I have three males in 8th grade, Hispanic, who I have a hard time getting them to enjoy, or want to learn Social Studies, particularly US History. I sometimes feel that they do not respect or appreciate our nation's past. They do participate well in class activities and projects, however, I feel that they do not fully comprehend our lesson(s).  What are your suggestion to help all Hispanics to want to become more interested in US History? (or any class)

226.  What are some effective ways for using wordgames for improving spelling for young learners?

227.  Please send me any references that you may have that I can use to study common language errors made in different cultures. I need to be able to analyze them and identify them. I sincerely appreciate any assistance that you can give me! I would also like any resources that you may have that provide practical strategies for the regular classroom teacher of English Language Learners. Thank you in advance for any help you can provide!

228.  I need to teach a short story to my lower level 9th grade readers including former LEP or English Language Learners. My school has mostly minority students, large numbers of African American and Hispanic students. How do I go about it?

229.  Many of my high school students have a very difficult time reading their World History textbooks and understanding the past. How can I help?

230.  How would you conduct a home visit with a 4 year old non-English speaking child?  Just a rough outline would be so helpful!  I want to know if my techniques can be modified to be more effective. The children enjoy my visits and I enjoy them. I want to give them the best and feel you will have an answer. I have been reading your pre-k pages and they are helpful.  The purpose of the visits is to help prepare the children for kindergarten and provide them some English vocabulary.   I go into homes and work with 3 and 4 year old children. Most are limited English or non-English speaking. They are so eager and so much fun! We play, and I try to learn their language and teach them mine. gato=cat, etc. We work on colors, numbers, the alphabet and sounds. I worry that my goals may be too broad or not structured enough. Should I focus on only one thing a visit? I keep their attention, but I vary our activities according to the child's interest. If I feel they are becoming bored, we switch to something else.  I hope this helps clarify my question a bit.

231. Please, could you help me answers these questions:   Explain the contribution that the arms race made to the out break ofWorld War I. When and why were the alliances formed in Europe's countries in World War I? Explain the different rivalries over colonies, and examples of previous imperial clashes in the the years prior to 1914 ( World War I).

232.  Subject: Review of "PREPARING FOR SUCCESS"   Dear Dr. Sadek, As an educational consultant in an Arizona district fighting to keep our dual language programs, I thank you for your excellent website. If you come through Phoenix, I would like to invite you to visit some of our K-TALK classrooms, where kindergarten children learn both content and sufficient English to go into dual language programs the subsequent year. Since K-TALK only involves students and teachers for 1 hour per day, 4 days per week, we think this is an excellent result.  Please let me know if you would like to receive a copy of my book. It is titled, "Preparing for Success: Meeting the language and learning needs of young children from poverty homes." Just let me know where you would like it sent and I will drop it in the mail to you. You can read a description of it on amazon.com.  Thank-you again for your great information.

233.   I'm an English teacher. I'm writing a university paper about teaching cursive as stressing the good aspect of it. Unfortunately, there is hardly anything written and broden onto, regarding this issue (the good aspect of teaching cursive). It seems that most people are disapproved of it. Can you help please? Are there any sites/links you can send me to?  I've read your quest./answer regarding this issue and was very pleased with the few positive aspects you've mentioned.  Many thanks in advance.

234.  Re: Question on Cursive Writing.  I just realize that my son (11 years old) starting 6th grade does not know cursive writing. I couldn't believe he didn't know! My mistake, I should have asked or checked!  My question is, what would be the fastest/best way to teach my son cursive writing?  Please help us!

235.  Re: ESL certification.  I am a speech-language pathologist and am interested in learning about the requirements for ESL certification. What is involved and who offers it? Thank you.

236.  I attended the ESL Academy in Arkansas, and I have a question. I am working with a child (young adult) who has been in our school system for at least 9 years. He is a senior and still is a VERY poor reader. To add to his problem, he was expelled from school. Because he was admitted to our Special Education program last year, he is being allowed to do his work after school for two days a week. I will be helping him. My question is this. Besides the work, what I really want to do with him -- and what his goal is -- is to become a better reader. He's taking astronomy (I can hardly read the book!), two agricultural topics (also very technical in nature), and English. We're modifying the material in English, but I want to work with him specifically with improving his general fluency in reading. I want to take time specifically earmarked for this purpose. Today, helped him answer questions -- read with him -- (Duolog technique, where we both read aloud, and I would stop if there were a word that I thought he might not know -- or a concept), but I want to do more. My question --what do you think would be the best way for me to help this 19-year-old. Word attack skills are very poor. If the word has more than two syllables, he really can't figure it out. Do you have any specific recommendations -- given the limited time I will have with him. I know what I need to do in the content areas, but I just wondered if you had a suggestion of what I could do to try to help him to read better. I am going to give him very low level, high interest books to take home and read daily (He'll be coming for two hours for two days a week.) I know that I have to "meet him on his level" and that more reading is better. Thanks for any suggestions.

237.  CLARIFICATION: Subject: Re: 19 year old.  Carmen: You may want to know that our state (Arkansas) constitution provides that public education be available through age 21--so our students are entitled to educational services until then.

238.  Re: Secondary Newcomers +Phonics.  Would you please address the use of phonics in the secondary ELL
classroom. I have not seen any empirical evidence (research) indicating that it is an effective practice. My training emphasized designing a learning environment with "meaningful" print, promoting "read alouds", grouping vocabulary in "meaningful" ways, and thematic-based lessons. Thank you for your wonderful website format w/Q & A!

239.  One of our ESL teachers has been concerned about her increasing #s of ESL/SPED students and we checked on of your previous responses to "how long the student stay in ESL." Scroll down to see Tricia's devil's advocate question below. Thanks for your time and consideration responding. We appreciate sharing your website w/our staff.  Okay....I read her answer and I'm playing devil's advocate here, I think. One of the Questions was how long should the student stay in ESL (and I believe it's referring to a special Ed ESL student). Here's her answer:  "I believe the answer in both cases --the case of the sick patient and the ESL student's case--may be: You MUST modify the services to make them so effective and efficient that the patient, or ESL student--becomes totally cured -- or academically fluent in English-- within the time the services are to be rendered.  The key idea here is: The needed services (the program modifications that the school district designs to serve students with limited command of the English language) MUST help students overcome the barrier, i.e., lack of academic English fluency that prevents limited English speaking students from achieving on a par with English speaking students.  If the student receives the prescribed services and still the barrier to academic success is not overcome, then THE PROGRAM must be changed. The student in need of services cannot be just left out there to solve his/her own problems." My devil's advocate question here is that in the case of many special ed students, their learning disability may be preventing them from ever being truly academically proficient in English??? Yes or no??? How do you "cure" someone of a disability?

240.  What should I do with "The Silent Student"?

241.  If a child has not learned to read on grade level by 4th grade, what do we do then?

242.  Do you ask questions in the same way if you are teaching only one student at a time?

243.  I am a Migrant Education Instructional Aide and would like help with the most effective way to increase students’ reading levels when you only see them twice a week for 30 minutes.

244.  As a Migrant Education Instructional Aide I would like to have classroom teachers understand it is OK for them to use scaffolding. How?

245.  I need to know how to give simple commands to students concerning their lessons, Examples:  Color the …. Sit down . . .  Stand . .  . Other instructional cues.

246.  Please, could you address the issue of newcomers or L1’s functioning in learning centers?

247.  What do you think of this idea: Using Word Search for Spelling:

248.  HELP: My most difficult time is when I am in the inclusion class and I am sitting in the back of the class and see students who don’t want to learn.

249.  Is it OK for students to have a conversation in their native language, and how to help teachers understand that? 

250.  Is it OK to celebrate the students’ countries’ holidays at school?

251. How can I help a student when the teacher hands me incomplete math assignments to help the student with?

252.  Please, could you share more information on creating hands-on math lessons?

253.  Do you agree that teaching science helps to incorporate the following: Spelling, Math, Writing, Social Studies, and Language Arts?

254.  I need help teaching about fractions: comparing values, LCD (Least Common Denominator) and GCF (Greatest Common Factor). - ANSWER: PENDING

255. I am an Instructional Assistant and the teacher just sends the kids to me without telling me what subject do I need to work on with the student. What should I do?

256. Why is it that, as a Paraprofessional, I always work with students on homework or make-up assignments, and NOT on SKILLS?

257.  As a new teacher I would like to know ways and techniques to work with my non-English-speaking students with reading. 

258.  Is the ELLA alphabet chart good or bad?

259.  I need help getting teachers to understand that I am, as the Instructional Aide, a resource --NOT a homework monitor.

260.  Since there are no reading classes after 4th grade, how do you help a student reading on 1st grade level in the 5th grade?

261.  I would like to know how to teach a 5th grader how to read in 30 minutes a day, AND a simple way to do it?

262. How do you help high school students with so much reading to comprehend in a short time in order to graduate? 

263.  I need more training in teaching how to read & write at different levels.

264.  I am an Instructional Aide for Migrant Education and need to learn to manage the stress of a heavy Migrant load.

265.  I would like to know a method, step by step, to help a 6-years-old child to read.

266.  Which one is better, Pull-out or inclusion?

267.  Some programs look good on paper. Where is the accountability?

268.  I went to work this week in Brunswick County. I have no job description, but the best I can figure out I will be supervising 4 bilingual assistants and assisting with additional ESL services for the most "at risk" students at 6 schools.  I need a "sounding board" for all that is happening there. I have been out of touch with ESL news now for two years and need my "legal" claws sharpened. Ha!  I have been too tired to move this week - after not working since last January. I will talk to my friend Natalie tomorrow at church and see if she might be able to get off and go to one of your workshops. Now that I am employed, I don't think I can go this time 'round, but I still want to see you if we can work that out. I'll look at the calendar and see what we have going on between now and Mar. 26. I'll be in touch.  Let me know how things are going for Middle Schools and High Schools. I will be in two middle schools 2-3 days a week assisting the bilingual tutor. I have already encountered classroom teachers' negative feelings about the students and have observed that little is being done in the classroom. The students are spending about half of the day with the tutor. I want to make a difference and if they will let me do some staff development for classroom teachers and these bilingual tutors, I will stay. If they tie my hands, I will be gone at the end of the year.  The tutors were hired with the only qualification being that they were bilingual and they have never had any training. Some have struggled along and sort of caught on to some things on their own; others are still struggling, trying to figure out what they are supposed to be doing. The ESL program comes under the Director of Federal Programs and she will be the one who will have to give me the authority to do what needs to be done. I anticipate the greatest resistance from the Middle School teachers. Right now I don't have any high schools to worry about because most of the kids are dropping out in Middle School.  Hope to see you soon!

269. How can I use the research reported in "ACCELERATING ACADEMIC ENGLISH" to improve my teaching and my school's program for English Learners?

270. Subject: SDAIE/Sheltered Lesson Observation checklistI need to fill out an observation checklist and want to know if I can get a SDAIE lesson plan that has examples or evidence of Modeling, Bridging, Contextualizing, Building Schema, Developing Metacognition, Reframing, Checking for Comprehension, Monitoring/Assessing, Questioning, Adjusting speech register, Orchastrating All Modalities for Learning, and Interacting: to fill out the checklist developed by Connie O.  Williams. I'm looking for anything that will help me complete this form. Thank You.

271. Subject: ESL Assessment for Tutoring.   I’m going to be working with middle school students/ Spanish/English.  I need a little test to give them before I start their tutoring plans. Could you provide me with a short test.  I'm going to be working with the school on a contractual basis.  I need to get my own materials.   I need a way to evaluate the students before starting a tutoring plan.  If you could donate the test to me I would certainly appreciate it.

272.  Subject: Translation question for youI am having problems this morning trying to locate a free web site that will translate English to Spanish. I want to double check some of my verb tenses to rehearse for a second interview this Wednesday. Can you offer any help?  Thank you.

273. Subject: Idiomatic expressionThough a Spanish speaker, I cannot seem to find and have never heard the idiomatic expression "Hay una rana afuera que tiene cara de mango chupado"!  Can you help make sense of this. I tried a translator that translated "palabra por palabra."  Thank you for your assistance.

274.  Subject: Re: video information request. Could you give me some information on your training videos?  What is the cost?  Is it possible to preview them?  How long are the videos?  What is the format of the videos, etc...?  Thank you.

275. What kinds of questions should I ask during my presentation on prepositions?

276. Subject: Fw: integrated unitDr. Sadek, Can you tell me where to find the activities that accompany the vocabulary lists for the Head Start Language Development Program?  Thank you.

277.  Spelling questionDo you know of any research which found spelling test scores to be higher if students learn their spelling words in manuscript vs. cursive?

278.  Just wondering if you can help me in studing to be a teacher's aide; at the moment and i'm stuck on a question.  What are some of the qualities and skills you think are essential for a teacher's aide to be a good  ESL teacher's aide? If you have any answers for me i would be grateful.

279.  A) How should teachers acknowledge responses to students?  B) How do you respond to incorrect responses?  C) How do you respond to correct responses?  D) How do you respond to responses with silence and "I don't know" responses?

280.  Re: Training Videos/Training Programs Relating to E.S.L.  Guten Tag Dr. Sanchez Sadek! I think you have lots and lots of information I could desperately use.    I teach ESL at an Elementary School in Germany.  I work with students grades K-5.  I have forty students from thirteen ethnic backgrounds.  The only thing our school has is: Into English, Hampton Brown.  I am always looking for materials that will enhance the learning of English for my students.   I have various Reading, Phonics and a variety of Language Skill books.  The students learn the language quite fast.  Do you have a list of things I can purchase?  I have given the teachers about five handouts that I wrote about ESL.  If you have anything I can share with the staff, would you please sent it to me.  Are you going to the TESOL conference in San Antonio?  I am from San Antonio.  I wanted to attend.  I think, I might want to push this thought.

281.  Subject: Re: Dyslixic studentsI am a Reading Specialist evaluating and working with dyslexic students in Texas.  My district needs to locate materials and teaching programs for our Hispanic students who are dyslexic.  Are you aware of any resources that would actually address the problem as it relates to a child learning English with Spanish as his or her primary language?  Do you know of any research that focuses on the exact language problems these children encounter?    A program in English that has been "translated into Spanish" may not address the particular difficulties these children have when they must use English.  I hope my question makes sense.  This is a difficult idea to convey.  Basically I am questioning whether dyslexia in Spanish is the same as dyslexia in English.  Locating valid research on this issue is more difficult than I first imagined it would be. Thank you for any help,

282.  Hi, my name is Sarah and I need help with long division and I knew I can count on you so if you get a chance to e-mail me and make me an example how to do long division.  Can you e-mail me at 6:00 please.  thank you

283.  Subject: Re: TESOL.  I am interested in teaching ESL in California.  What are the requirements to take the CLAD (Cross-Cultural, Language and Academic Development) or B-CLAD (Bilingual-Cross Cultural, Language and Academic Development.)  Do I need to have a Bachelor's degree to take these courses?  How long will it take to finish these courses?  Thank you for your prompt reply.

284.  Subject: Re: consulta sobre Proposición 227.  Grand Terrace, California, 3 de marzo de 2005, Estimada evaluadora, Dra, Carmen Sánchez Sadek:  Soy maestra de educación inicial y resido actualmente en el condado de San Bernardino. Me encuentro realizando, vía internet, una maestría en educación con la Universidad ORT de mi país natal (Uruguay). En el mes de abril debo ir a defender mi tesis, la cual se basa en una investigación que estoy llevando acabo sobre los efectos de la educación pre-escolar en los niños que no hablan inglés, aplicado a este estado.  Le escribo porque acabo de leer su articulo sobre la proposicion 227 y quisiera saber más sobre ella, fundamentalmente si se sigue aplicando y dónde puedo conseguir el texto original de la misma.  Muchas gracias. 

285.  QUESTION: Re: ESL assessment for K-5I'm in Hong Kong at a large international school.  Can you recommend a few ESOL assessment tools that we might look at?  This is for K-5 level.   Thanks for any ideas you might have.  I've taught ESOL for 18 years and none of the schools I've worked at have ever used more than very rudimentary assessment programs.  If you have names/web pages/info...that would be best.

286.  Re: ESL essay writingDear Madam, I'm doing a project paper titled,"Problems faced by ESL learners in essay writing." I would appreciate it very much if you give me some feedback on this topic.  I would also like to know the theoretical background underlying mind mapping.

287.  Subject:  ESL education Dr. Sadek, I just visited your ESL website.  I am a teacher in Columbus, Ohio and will be traveling to Houston and San Luis Potosi, Mexico in August.  I am currently working toward a 'new' teaching license with an emphasis on the ESL student.  Do you know of anyone in Houston that I could meet with regarding ESL programs in Texas?  I appreciate your assistance.  Your website is extremely helpful.

288.  Re: ESL. vs Bilingual EducationI am thinking majoring in multicultural education ("loose terms", my apologies) and have  been researching for months. What do you think is better, to have ESL programs in schools or bilingual education programs? If both is not an option, which is more helpful? I know bilingual ed. programs are more common and better funded for, but which is really the best choice? I have an assignment on this question due by the end of this week (Friday, April 1st) and I would really appreciate having a professional's view on this issue. If you can email me back by then I would appreciate it so much! Any time after (as soon as possible, if you please) is alright, too. I understand if you don't have time to answer my question, but I would appreciate it so much if you could.

289.  Re: Possessive Pronouns or adjectivesI am an English teacher in Tijuana, Mexico and I have a doubt and I wish you could help me with it.  Why are the words "my, your, his, her, our and their" considered possessive pronouns as well as adjectives? I would really appreciate it if your could explain me this concept. Thank you very much.
FOLLOW-UP QUESTION:  Subject: Re: Possessive Pronouns or adjectivesThank you very much for answering my big doubt so fast. I still have a doubt, a Canadian English teacher told me that "my, your, her, etc." are known as "PPA" that is "possessive pronouns as adjectives" and I also saw in a grammar book that these words were pronouns. Your definition is the one that makes sense...."no pronoun can be used with a noun" can you tell me about this "possessive pronouns being used as adjectives"?  Thank you very much for your time.

290.  Subject: Re: Question about Esol, research for a case study.
Part 1:  Hello, I found your site on the internet and thought you could help me. I'm a student at USC Upstate working on a certification in ESOL.  I have been trying to find information for my  case study assignment that is due soon. I want to find research on teaching sequencing using - first, last, next, then, finally. I taught my student the lessons that were in the textbook- "Lifeprints". I did sequencing with a story, telling the steps in making coffee. and etc. Has there ever been any research articles written on how to help students? My student is an adult. I've tried searching on the internet and through ERIC. Please e-mail me back.  Thank you for your time. 

Part 2
Thank you so much for your reply. My student could tell me how to make a cup of coffee. We made a necklace with a pattern.  My husband and I adopted two children from Estonia seven years ago. The boy is ADHD. We adopted him when he was almost three. He is now in second grade.  He has a hard time in spelling. He can't understand the sounds. He is in resource.  He didn't speak any English when he came to this country.  He didn't speak any Estonian when he came to this country.  Could his problems in spelling be due to English being his second language?

Part 3:  Anrei's birth parents were Russian. He was in an orphanage from the time he was a baby till we adopted him at age 2. So how do we solve his spelling problem request at his IEP meeting Friday that he gets served in an Esol program ? I would like to take your e-mail where you answered me to his IEP meeting Friday April 22.  I look forward to your reply.
Part 4:
I showed the IEP team the e-mail you sent me.  The principal said that he couldn't get help through ESL because he has been over here 7 years. I found out from a resource teacher that I work with that a student can need ESOL and be in resource. I showed the team the wilson reading program which is what we use in the self-contained class that I work with. The students in the class are MR or  have a learning disability.  I am glad that I found you through my internet search for information. I can learn so much from you. My first certification is in art. I taught for 16 years at the elementary level and 2 years at the community college level.  Thanks for all your insight. Andrei will have additional time in resource for math and language arts. He reads very expressively.

291.  Subject: Re: Pronouns as subjects. Thanks a lot for answering my mails. You can't imagine how  helpful they have been. I have another question. I have here a Grammar book that says: " Because pronouns replace nouns, they can be the subject of a sentence. The subject pronouns are: I, he, she, it, we and they." They don't mention the pronoun "you" and all the exercises don't include "you"  either. Is this a mistake or "you" is not considered a subject pronoun? Thank you very much, I know that your answer will be of great help.

292.  QUESTIONHola! soy una maestra de México y tengo esta duda. Cuando se escribe una frase entre comillas, el punto va al final pero después de las comillas o antes? Tambien quiero mencionar que me costó un poco de trabajo encontrar en el "site" la forma de comunicarme con usted y poder hacer mi pregunta, quiero decir que no se indica dónde hacer click para preguntas, Bueno, espero su respuesta. Muchas Gracias.

293.  QUESTION Part 1) What can parents do to intervene if they sense that their child is not doing well in school, and might repeat the school year? Part 2) Once the child has already been made repeat the school year, what can parents do to help him/her to succeed?

294.  Subject: Need helpGood Morning:  What a great website. Congratulations.   I am the new ESL/Bilingual coordinator in a small school district in Long Island, New York. I just read in your website that you have training videos on ESL, Bilingual and Dual Language.  What is the possibility of getting copies of those videos? Do you sell them?  Please advise.

295.  Subject: Re: CoachingWould you happen to have an English version copy of the Attachment #1 for Coaching students to think of themselves in positive terms to develop positive self image and positive self esteem. I was able to view the page but it is written in Spanish and I am desperately looking for positive list of words for encouragement for my (3) small children.  Any information you can give is most welcome.  Thank You!

296.  Subject: Re: Use of instructional aides. I'm trying to locate information about specific California laws and/or cases that revolve around delivery of ESL instruction by instructional bilingual aides outside of the classroom. Any guidance you can give me will be greatly appreciated.  I do have a few follow-up questions: 1) What does UNDER THE DIRECT GUIDANCE really mean? Does the teacher  have to have visual proximity with the "teaching" instructional aide?  Should the guiding teacher plan all lessons/activities that the aide  does? Should the teacher meet daily with the instructional aide to plan instruction? Does the teacher deliver tests and report results/give  progress reports if any? I guess I'm just confused about how much  guidance UNDER THE DIRECT GUIDANCE AND SUPERVISION means. How much is  "any" guidance? What does an ideal, or even just acceptable, amount of  guidance look like when the law is being followed? What does it look like when the law is not being followed? There's probably a great deal of "gray" area and each specific situation would have to examined closely, but I'd appreciate any more details you think I might be able to rely upon in my conversations with district officials.

297.  Subject: Re: Published articlesAre your most recently published articles translated in English somewhere?  I am doing an action research project on ESL students and building vocabulary.  I found your question and answer forum very insightful for strategies and suggestions, but I need some authentic literature in this area for my research.  Do you have any suggestions?

298.  Subject: ESL project I am an elementary physical education teacher and I would like to know more about how to apply ESL Teaching strategies and assessment to my subject area.  Thank you.

299  Part I. Subject: Textbooks for Spanish speaking studentsDr. Sanchez, I am dean of students at a public New Jersey middle school. I also teach a history class that has students who are new immigrants to the US and do not speak English. I would like to find an American History textbook that is written in Spanish so that these students can better understand what material we are covering in American History. I have been working with our ESL teacher and she agreed that have a textbook written in Spanish may help these students. My problem is that I cannot find a company that has that type of text. Any help would be greatly appreciated.  Part II-Thank you for your informative response. I am happy to report that Holt Rinehart( the company that publishes our current text) has sent me the entire text on audio, & text summaries of each section of the book with vocabulary & questions in Spanish.

300. [This Q&A will be added later.]

301. Subject: Re: a child reading out loudThanks in advance for your time and helping a little child!  My daughter's school teacher stated that even though she is very behind in her reading that we should not have her read out loud.  I would think that we need to have her read out loud in order to have her advance with her reading.  Is this correct or is the teacher missing it?  My opinion is that we need to have her read out loud in order to help her advance in the reading skill!  Please let me know what studies have shown.  Thanks.

302. Subject: Integrating students to classrooms when language barrier existsI am writing an argumentative essay for English class for my University instructor. I am considering the implementation of new programs for ESL students when they speak, read, write very little English. Are there requirements for a student to be able to enrol and attend classes with the existing students? If not, why not? If so, what are they? To have seperate classrooms for these students is not a matter of discrimination but, to give them the same advantage or opportunity as my English proficient daughter who is also a student. I was told by a new teacher that they are not allowed to seperate these students due to discrimination laws. Is this true? Where might I find info on why this is not implemented as my child has to meet certain criteria for being in her class level but possibly it being different when a student speaks the language of their home land due to state laws or federal laws such as No Child Left Behind or discriminitory laws. Do they modify testing requirements when a student is not proficient in the language native to the region they attend school ?

303. As a middle school teacher in a predominantly minority school in Los Angeles (75% Hispanic, 24% Black, 1% others) I find it difficult to help my students, MOST OF THEM Re-designated English Learners and Speakers of Non-standard Dialects of English, to read through a complete literary piece, such as Karen Cushman's "Catherine, Called Birdy."  Any ideas?

304. I love to show my students the film "Where The Red Fern Grows" and I would love to have them READ the book BEFORE seeing the film.   How can I do that?

305.  Subject: Re: Grammar Elements. One of our teachers is taking an SEI class, the book she is using suggests that grammar elements be taught in the following sequence; 1. prepositions and prepositional phrases 2. present tense of verb "to be" / person and number 3. adjectives 4. present tense / subject - verb agreement 5. past tense 6. future tense.  -- Is there a reason for this?

306.  What is the difference between the two prepositions, under and beneath?

307.  TO: (another professor)   I did have a few questions relating to this site that I just opened. I was reading the response to the question about teaching short story to ninth graders (you suggested SNOW! ) and one major step was:  1) "Using ALL pictures and using mime, the teacher introduced ALL vocabulary words BEFORE reading the short story..." In how many class periods was this to take place? And 2) what part of this major beginning is NOT teacher centered? He/she appears to do all the work. Getting my 34 (per class) settled, involved, and participating constructively seems to eliminate introduction of over 100 words in 43 minutes. Am I missing something? The NYC Dept of Ed is somewhat fanatical about how they want things done according to specific "models" and the observations go strongly against spending the whole time doing the instructing (they prefer shared ignorance of students actually). But, I am missing the point of "introducing" vocabulary. Just don't know where or how it can be done in any reasonable time period.Thank you for your thought and information on this site. I will most likely not have financial resources to pursue it but it has given me some things to work with. SIGNED: __________(an older - very much older - new teacher in NYCBOE).

308. Re: Great writing! repetir el gradoMe encantaría poder obtener este articulo en InglesA sus ordenes. -- Educación Pública: Repetir grado no es un juego [La Opinión, Domingo, 17 de marzo de 2002]

309.  Re: Need advice -- textbooks in SpanishI'm an American teaching a college-prep social studies course in Mexico to Mexican students.  I teach the class in English as they are supposedly advanced in English.  About the appropriateness of this I have doubts.  Unfortunately our school's policy is unlikely to change.  Our school would like me to teach THE SAME INFORMATION that my Spanish co-teachers teach in their classes. Do you know of any social studies texts that are available in English and Spanish?  If it's university level, that's okay.  I'm desperate.  Any help would be greatly appreciated.

310. Re: a little confusionI was in your last ESL Academy at Henderson.  Because of all the new and wonderful things I learned last summer, I've had a great year with my little ESOL students.I was wondering if you could re-explain the vibe at the end of a word v.s. no vibe ending.  I can't remember the rule you taught us and my notes make no sense to me now.

311. Re: recommendation for 6th grade language arts.  Thank you again for coming out to South East High School in South Gate. Your presentation was fantastic. Next year I will be teaching 6th grade language arts but I'm having trouble planning for the year. I'm not familiar with the 6th grade standards or literature. Any suggestions you can offer as to what novels/text I should use would be greatly appreciated.

312.  Subject: Re: Visuals in Dual Language ClassroomsHi!  I am an ESL teacher, and I would like you to help me find an article on how to use visuals in dual language classrooms.  Next week I am going to do a workshop on that topic and I'm having problems finding information on the topic of how beneficial visuals are for ELLs.  Can you please give me some ideas for my presentation. Thank you so much,

313. Subject: Spanish LiteracyDr. Sanchez Sadek, I work for a School District in Washington State.  I was given your name by a fellow teacher who came to us from California and highly recommended your workshops.  Our district is looking into some staff development regarding Spanish literacy skills, specifically beginning Spanish reading for native Spanish speakers (grades K-5).  What types of workshops/trainings do you offer in this area?  Thank you

314. Subject: Effective Programs.  [Question - PART 1] Dr. Sadek, in high schools, what courses should be offered to our ESL students? In your opinion,  should pre-productions be placed in main-stream/all- English classes? If not, when is the appropriate time and student proficiency when ESL students can be transitioned into all-English classes. Thank you so much! [Question -PART 2] Dr. Sadek, another question: What are the appropriate materials and strategies for teaching a newcomer/in-take/pre-level l class?

315. Subject: Well done!  Dra. Sanchez:  Encontré su "site" por casualidad y tengo que decir que esta estupendo.  Nunca había encontrado un lugar con tan buenas preguntas, y obviamente contestaciones, a nuestro diario vivir.  Según he notado usted tiene dominio completo del inglés y español y eso es algo que me fascina.  Esa es mi meta.  Yo no quiero ser una maestra bilingüe del "montón," quiero ser una profesional en todo el sentido de la palabra, pero se me hace muy difícil.  Dígame usted como puedo hacer para mejorar mi gramática en inglés.  Regresé a la universidad a los 35 años para estudiar educación.  Obviamente, en inglés es mucho mas difícil para mí que en español.  Hasta  este momento, que estoy terminando, he "sobrevivido," pero me preocupa de manera el hecho que yo tengo que enseñar el inglés a estos niños y lo quiero hacer bien para que ellos no tengan que pasar por lo mismo que yo pasé.   Tengo mucho problema con los verbos y las preposiciones.  Una amiga me dice  que si empiezo a leer inglés esto me ayudaría mucho.  El problema es que  para mí no me hace sentido leer ingles, no lo disfruto.  Yo puedo leer el  tema que a mí más me guste, pero como que no es lo mismo.  ¿Cómo cree usted  que puedo llegar a dominar el inglés?  Me gustaría poder leer inglés como en español.  Yo puedo reconocer cuando un verbo o una palabra está mal usado en español, y así mismo quiero hacerlo en inglés.  ¿Qué me recomienda?  Gracias.  Esperando su contestación

316. Subject: I.D.E.L. We have been mandated to use the Spanish version of D.I.B.E.L.s for the purpose of forming intervention groups at the early grades.  What do you think about this testing and tracking tool.  Has it been well researched? We have been using Kathy Escamilla's Spanish version of Reading Recovery (Descubre la Lectura) which gave us lots of information about change over time in student's reading abilities.  These subtests of Reading Recovery in Spanish have been invaluable to the teacher in planning lessons and in tracking student growth.  We are a 90/10 Two-Way Immersion Spanish K-5 Program in Southern Oregon. Thanks for your help!

317. Subject: Re: ESL teaching techniques applied by teachers in the classroomI found your website on ESL very interesting. At the same time I am asking for help on the question ESL teaching techniques applied by teachers in the classroom for a research paper I am working on. Hope to hear from you soon

318. Subject: SEEKING INFORMATIONI am currently trying to find either a private educational therapist or a program for my 11 year old son. He has ADHD as well as some learning challenges. I have had a difficult time finding educational therapist in the West Los Angeles area. Are you able to refer a few therapists or programs?

319.  Subject: Certified in ESLQUESTION:  I have been looking at your website and I have been reading the questions that people have asked you. They are very interesting and helpful. I am an ESL or ELL tutor, I work at a school in Central Arkansas and I work with Hispanic students. Most of them can speak and understand some English, but they still have some trouble with comprehension. I ask the teachers for a good time for me to take them out and I help them with the work or subjects they are getting low grades in. I have had a couple of students that have come into our school and they don't know any English. I work with them with Phonics and that has helped me a lot. They are now doing great and they are talking English and communicating with the teachers and students. I enjoy working and helping the students to get a better and good education. I have seen on some of the questions people ask you, that some of these teachers are certified in ESL and that is what I would like to become, certified in ESL. I have been looking at colleges, but so far I have not found anything that will give me the information I want. I would like if you could please give me some advice as to what to do or where to look. I would like to take the classes here in Arkansas if it was possible. By the way I am fluent in Spanish/English, as Spanish is my native language. I was born in the northern part of California and moved to Arkansas about eight years ago. I have been working for the school for 7 years. Please let me know if you have some information for me, I would really appreciate it.

320.  Subject: The Holocaust and World War II.   QUESTION:  Can you please guide me to where I can find information (free) on The Holocaust and World II in Spanish?  I'd appreciate any information.  Thank You

321. Subject: uncertified teacher.  QUESTION:  Do you have any advice for a highly qualified and uncertified English teacher from another country to find a teaching position?  Any district in your knowledge which will be willing to sponsor a  H1 B visa and offer job at least on conditional permit?

322.  Subject: Research proposal.    Next week I will be beginning my final course (Research Methods) of my Master's Degree.  In this course, we are required to write a research proposal-not an entire thesis.  After completing my Master's I would like to continue my graduate studies and earn my Education Specialist's degree with a concentration in ELL.  My dilemma is trying to choose a topic for my Master's research that could be continued in my Ed.S. as an actual thesis.  Our population in Gwinnett County, Georgia, is becoming increasingly diverse.  In some schools, the majority of our students are ELL students. In the fall I will be opening a new school; our population is about 10% ELL and growing.  I will have approximately 5-10 ELL students in my 2nd grade class next year.  Do you think that looking at best practices for ELL instruction in the regular ed classroom is too broad for thesis research?  I am also very curious about multicultural strategies for ELL instruction.  I feel that we have been teaching the same "type" of student for so long in our town that many of our teachers will be unprepared for the influx of ELL students.  In my research, I would like to do something that could really benefit me as a classroom teacher, thus making me a more prepared teacher of ELL students.  Do you have any suggestions?  Any advice would be greatly appreciated!  Thank you so much for your informative website.  I just found it yesterday and have been reading ever since!

323.  I am looking for empirical research that has been done on ESL programs that work i.e. pull-out vs. inclusion. Do you have any suggestions?

324.  Subject: Re: Seeking PermissionI am a graduate student enrolled in the Master's Program in ESL/EFL at Tamkang  University, Taiwan. I am writing to seek your permission for the use of the lesson design entitled, ‘Creating a  Class Mural of Categories of Nouns—Prototypical and Non-Prototypical  Nouns; Concrete, Mass or Non-Count Nouns and Abstract Nouns’ (Lesson Number 4).  My thesis is to investigate the conceptual/cognitive perception of  Count/Mass distinction on English common noun use/acquisition of Taiwanese College students. My teaching treatment is to incorporate images and image schemas along with nouns used in sentences respectively to two groups of subjects. A pre-test, an interim test, a post test, and a delayed post test designed to track students’ comprehension and production will be administered to gauge progress. However, few literatures I have studied addressed the pedagogical practices of using Count/Mass distinction in a structured environment, which draws my attention to this issue in my thesis.  Your online lesson plan regarding 'Creating a Class Mural of Categories of Nouns' (Lesson Number 4) is a great sample to develop  the teaching practice and to support the pedagogical dynamics in my treatment. I will claim credit for you as the original lesson planner in my published thesis if permission is granted. Should you have any questions about my design, I would be glad to submit an abstract for your reference. I sincerely appreciate your consideration of my proposal and look forward to hearing from you soon.

325.  Subject: IEP and Foreign LanguageI am a parent of an eighth grader with an IEP/ NY school. He is struggling with Spanish. I am confused as to what modifications or accommodations can be made so this class is manageable. It has been strongly suggested by the school administration that my son withdraw from the class.  Other than some accommodations for print/font size I don’t see too much else added to help him with this a foreign language class. I am told that much can not be done because it is a foreign language. Any suggestions?  I came across your email as I was trying to find some resources on the internet…





For more in-depth information, classroom demonstrations, and "coaching" of new and/or experienced teachers, Dr. CARMEN SANCHEZ SADEK offers:

1. Cognitive - Academic Language and Vocabulary Development
2. Cross Cultural Diversity - Multicultural Strategies
3. Effective Instruction for English Learners (L.E.P. students) Parts 1, 2, 3, 4
4. Promoting Academic Success in Language Minority Students
5. Cognitive - Academic Language and Vocabulary Development
6. Oral Language / Literacy Skills / Higher Order Thinking Skills
7. 50/50 Dual Language Programs: design, planning and implementation
8. The Structure of English / The Structure of Spanish
9. Transition: Introduction to English Reading

Web Site Programs for Teachers: Numbers 1, 5, 7, 8, and 9.
Web Site Programs for
Paraprofessionals: Number 3.
Web Site Programs for
New Teachers:
Enhanced Cultural Sensitivity - The Challenge of Students Diversity
Identifying / Responding to Students' Language Needs
Phonemic Awareness: Teaching English phonics to L.E.P. students
Relationship Between Reading, Writing and Spelling
Improving Reading Performance -- Building Oral Language Skills)

Write and e-mail any additional questions you may have, and Dr. CARMEN SANCHEZ SADEK will establish with you, your school or district a Technical Assistance Service Contract. Dr. CARMEN SANCHEZ SADEK will answer all your questions promptly and to your satisfaction.


For information and credentials please click on the link below or contact directly:


Educational Consultant, Program Evaluator

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Certification (12/2006)

3113 Malcolm Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90034-3406

Phone and Fax: (310) 474-5605

E-mail:  csssadek@gte.net