119. I'm a student from Malta and I'm confused about the word "all". In what part of speech does that word goes, in a conjunction or in a preposition?

As I have indicated in answers to other posted questions, the "classical" or traditional parts of speech recognized by Greek and Roman Grammarians hundreds of years ago, do not truly apply to the English language today, nor to many other languages throughout the world. The word "ALL," according to English grammars and dictionaries, is classified as:

(1) adjective: ALL modifies nouns
All students must report to the attendance office.

As a number quantity, as an amount, ALL is just like a number, a
numeral, an adjective specifying totality or whole.
Give me three books, many books, all books.
The coat is all wool.

(2) pronoun: ALL may replace or represent/stand for nouns, with the
same meaning of number or amount, totality, whole.
He ate the peanuts. He ate all the peanuts. He ate all of the peanuts.
That is what I have to say. That is all I have to say.

(3) noun: In certain expressions, ALL names a whole, a totality --
Example: Give it your all.

(4) adverb: all can modify an adjective or an adverb
He waited all alone. It is all good now.

There are idiomatic expressions with ALL
He has all but wisdom. All in all, it was a good trip.

As you can see, when a word can belong to so many categories, then, the categories are not applicable nor do they serve to categorize.  Parts of speech, in the traditional sense in which they were defined by classical grammarians, do not apply to English today.

A "conjunction" serves to co-join or put together (or disjoint or separate) phrases or sentences.
All my friends AND all my enemies will say something about my actions.

A "preposition " serves to indicate relationships among the realities named by nouns.
Example: I will try to go WITH Mary.

Hope these ideas help you understand ALL there is to understand about the word ALL!!!



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