270.  I need to fill out an observation checklist and want to know if I can get a SDAIE lesson plan that has examples or evidence of Modeling, Bridging, Contextualizing, Building Schema, Developing Metacognition, Reframing, Checking for Comprehension, Monitoring/Assessing, Questioning, Adjusting speech register, Orchastrating All Modalities for Learning, and Interacting: to fill out the checklist developed by Connie O.  Williams. I'm looking for anything that will help me complete this form. Thank You.


THANK YOU for your very interesting question and my apologies to you for not replying sooner -- I have had severe health problems that prevented me from giving you an answer.   Please, read on!!!  THANKS!!!

To fill out an "observation" checklist you may need to actually OBSERVE a lesson or READ a detailed script of a lesson where you can "see" how a teacher interacted with the students.  We hope, in the future, to add video-taped lessons to this Web Site so that visitors can actually see LIVE "effective and efficient" language development practices.  

Meantime, I believe that "new" terminology, and not "new" practices, corresponds to the labels you name above.   Let me give you an example:

In a training program I attended a few days ago, the representatives from a textbook publisher spent a great deal of time talking about "dispatches."  This is the "new," "improved" label for the "old" and effective "SPONGE ACTIVITIES" that absorb "idle" time during lessons.   For instance, while students come into the classroom and settle to get involved in a lesson, and to keep students concentrated on learning, teachers can have a "sponge" spelling activity such as teacher gives a word from a current spelling list and students --individually or as a group-- spell the word.   The teacher can provide during those brief moments while entering or exiting the classroom, or for changing from one subject matter to another, brief, focused, fun activities that keep students "on learning," rather than allowing students to decide what to do on their own -- they would usually prefer to "converse" with one another.  

"Sponge activities" last just a few minutes, can be student directed (for example, the student who spells a word correctly can give the next spelling word) and can serve to review new material or reinforce previous learnings.   Well, we now call these types of activities "dispatches"!!!!  As we say in Spanish: "El mismo perro con distinto collar." (Same dog with a different collar.)

I will list your labels below and try to "name" them the "old-fashion" way, how is that?   

Modeling -- still called "modeling," that is, when the teacher verbally or physically or both, provides the response expected from students, like solving a mathematical problem or naming the parts of the body, pointing to the countries shown on a map, etc.

Bridging  --  probably this label refers to the linking of previous learning to new learning;  the teacher may help students remember how yesterday's lesson is relevant to today's lesson about a new concept.

Contextualizing  --  related to "bridging," the teacher brings all previous relevant knowledge to help students master a new concept.   Contextualizing may also include "why" learning a new concept is important or relevant or necessary for the students as they prepare themselves for "life."

Building Schema  --  may refer to the need to "connect," graphically through categories or diagrams or any other means, how a new learning is related or associated with other previous learnings.  By building schema, the teacher helps students build pathways to remember new learnings, pathways to retrieve new learning from memory.

Developing Metacognition  --  is a way to help students become aware of HOW they learn, how they associate concepts or ideas in their brains, how they organize their newly acquired knowledge in their own minds.  For example, the teacher, building schema in many different forms --through words, drawings, pictures, models, etc., helps students select which way is the preferred form of learning for each student.

Reframing  --  suggests different pathways to learning a new concept: visually through words or drawings or pictures; auditory pathways through repeating or chanting or adding new words to an old tune, or clapping, etc.; kinesthetically through body movements or gestures with parts of the body, through dancing or jumping, or mimicking, etc.;

Checking for Comprehension is still "checking for comprehension or understanding" through questions or through physical activities like raising a hand for the correct answer or pointing to the correct picture or responding --individually or in a group-- with the right word, etc.

Monitoring/Assessing  --  is part of "checking for comprehension" but may be individually --when the teacher walks around the room checking individual student work, or when a teacher may request a student to solve a problem on the board while s(he) asks questions regarding the procedure used to solve the problem, or any type of formal or informal assessment that a teacher may use.

Questioning  --  I think is self-explanatory; however, for me the skills of a teacher to ask the right question of each student so that correct responses are maximized is one of the most important practices in effective teaching for language development and concept formation. 

Adjusting speech register  --  I believe refers to the skills of teacher in rephrasing their questions, their verbal directions, their explanations so that all students, at all levels of language proficiency, master the concepts and ideas a teacher is presenting. 

Orchestrating All Modalities for Learning -- refers to opportunities to learn verbally, visually, through auditory means, kinesthetically, through technology, manually, musically, and through as many perceiving / thinking channels as possible.  

And Interacting  --  which I am sure refers to the old "teacher talk" vs. "student talk," that is, how much student participation do you find in the lesson.

Oh, well, I think we have, once again, "el mismo perro con distinto collar."

Hope this "translation" of old terms to new terminology helps you, even if late!!!


For more in-depth information, classroom demonstrations, and "coaching" of new and/or experienced teachers, Dr. CARMEN SANCHEZ SADEK offers:

1. Cognitive - Academic Language and Vocabulary Development
2. Cross Cultural Diversity - Multicultural Strategies
3. Effective Instruction for English Learners (L.E.P. students) Parts 1, 2, 3, 4
4. Promoting Academic Success in Language Minority Students
5. Cognitive - Academic Language and Vocabulary Development
6. Oral Language / Literacy Skills / Higher Order Thinking Skills
7. 50/50 Dual Language Programs: design, planning and implementation
8. The Structure of English / The Structure of Spanish
9. Transition: Introduction to English Reading

Web Site Programs for Teachers: Numbers 1, 5, 7, 8, and 9.
Web Site Programs for
Paraprofessionals: Number 3.
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Identifying / Responding to Students' Language Needs
Phonemic Awareness: Teaching English phonics to L.E.P. students
Relationship Between Reading, Writing and Spelling
Improving Reading Performance -- Building Oral Language Skills)

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