314. Subject: Effective Programs.  [Question - PART 1] Dr. Sadek, in high schools, what courses should be offered to our ESL students? In your opinion,  should pre-productions be placed in main-stream/all- English classes? If not, when is the appropriate time and student proficiency when ESL students can be transitioned into all-English classes. Thank you so much! [Question -PART 2] Dr. Sadek, another question: What are the appropriate materials and strategies for teaching a newcomer/in-take/pre-level l class?

ANSWER - Part 1:

Welcome!!!   Thank you for visiting our Web Sites and for your very thoughtful question!!! The answer follows:
High School ESL students need to participate in the same courses that all other English-speaking students take:   English, Math, Science, History, Health, etc., etc.   As you fully understand, students in the early stages of English language development would have a very difficult time placed --without instructional support-- into "main-stream/all-English" content area classes.  
The key to successful "equal access to the core curriculum" by ESL high school students is basically a matter of "Team-Teaching," that is, providing for these early-stages-of-English-Language-Development students an ESL Program where the ESL teacher works in very close contact and cooperation with the content area teachers.   Thus, while the ESL students are in the ESL class, they are prepared to successfully perform in the content area classes they will attend that day.   For example, if the ESL students attend a "main-stream/all-English" class in Biology on a certain day, the ESL teacher should introduce the Biology vocabulary for that lesson in the ESL class PRIOR to students attending the Biology class.  
The key idea is that the ESL students are prepared to succeed in the Biology class through the ESL class.   Thus, the Biology teacher could share with the ESL teacher the plans for each day, including the vocabulary and the visuals the Biology teacher will use in the Biology class.  With the Biology vocabulary, visuals and key concepts to be introduced in the Biology class on a certain day or week, then the ESL teacher can plan English Language Development lessons to help the ESL students master the key Biology vocabulary, and recognize the visual representations of the Biology concepts to be introduced in the Biology class.  
There is no need to provide different classes or programs for ESL students.   Rather, cross-discipline team-teaching may be the most effective solution.   Close cooperation and coordination among content area teachers and ESL teachers would facilitate successful performance by ESL students in content area classes.    
It would help if the content-area teachers also understand key concepts in Second Language Development --indeed, learning the LANGUAGE of the content areas is very much like learning a second language.  With all teachers --content area AND ESL teachers-- fully focused on promoting Content Area Language Development, ESL students would have a much better chance of succeeding in high school content area classes.   
Thank you for your excellent question.   Glad to help with any other questions you may have.         

ANSWER - Part 2:

Your question is so broad that it would require a very long answer -- especially since the answer would depend on the grade level of the students.   What may be appropriate and most beneficial for young students needs to be re-defined in terms of the interests, goals, needs and other concerns of older, secondary students.  
There are many questions in my Web Sites that deal with your points -- at different grade levels.   Much depends, in addition to grade level, on the primary language proficiency and literacy level in the primary language of the students in question.   And, of course, ALL students, no matter how little English they may know, MUST be taught the core curriculum for the grade level they are in.   All of these factors need to be considered, so there is no ONE answer to your question, but many answers depending on the needs, background, age, and other considerations based on the students in question.  
Please, review in my Web Sites the answers to questions similar to yours, but much more specific, and those ideas may be of help to you at this time.     You may also try to specify exactly what type of student you are interested in.   THANKS!!!!  




For more in-depth information, classroom demonstrations, and "coaching" of new and/or experienced teachers, Dr. CARMEN SANCHEZ SADEK offers:

1. Cognitive - Academic Language and Vocabulary Development
2. Cross Cultural Diversity - Multicultural Strategies
3. Effective Instruction for English Learners (L.E.P. students) Parts 1, 2, 3, 4
4. Promoting Academic Success in Language Minority Students
5. Cognitive - Academic Language and Vocabulary Development
6. Oral Language / Literacy Skills / Higher Order Thinking Skills
7. 50/50 Dual Language Programs: design, planning and implementation
8. The Structure of English / The Structure of Spanish
9. Transition: Introduction to English Reading

Web Site Programs for Teachers: Numbers 1, 5, 7, 8, and 9.
Web Site Programs for
Paraprofessionals: Number 3.
Web Site Programs for
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Enhanced Cultural Sensitivity - The Challenge of Students Diversity
Identifying / Responding to Students' Language Needs
Phonemic Awareness: Teaching English phonics to L.E.P. students
Relationship Between Reading, Writing and Spelling
Improving Reading Performance -- Building Oral Language Skills)

Write and e-mail any additional questions you may have, and Dr. CARMEN SANCHEZ SADEK will establish with you, your school or district a Technical Assistance Service Contract. Dr. CARMEN SANCHEZ SADEK will answer all your questions promptly and to your satisfaction.


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